Today Paul's passage lays out the power of grace that leads to righteousness. Sin enters the world with Adam because he was tempted to sin against the command that God gave him. However after that, up until Moses brings the Law, all sinned but it was not held against them. Paul means this when he says that sin was present in all but it was not placed on their account. In other words they sinned, which means to go against the immutable standard of God, but the penalty is not placed on them because grace will ultimately cover them upon a confession of faith in Jesus. This is often misunderstood theology. There is sin that has and will exist until the end of this system, which comes after the millennial reign of Christ; however Jesus paid the price for all sin (upon confession of faith in Him). So through the one man Adam sin enters the world that affects us all, so much more does the salvific work of the one Man Jesus brings us grace, which is the removal of the penalty of sin due to the eternal law of Justice, from the account of the sinner. This is active upon faith in Christ. This implies that there must exist a process by which those who do not know Christ must have a real opportunity to accept Him while living OR after death! Moses brings the Law of Moses and Paul tells us why. It was to create more sin by commission and omission which by justice deserves death. The Law always brings death to humanity because no one could keep the Law. In other words, the Law demands death because we cannot become righteous by our deeds or works - righteousness by self works! But Gentiles not under the Law sin but are not held accountable to a Law that they did not have but once they are presented Jesus, their decision dictates their future since ignorance of the Law does not mean that there was no sin! This is why there MUST be a final judgement of ALL which look at our works while living. Revelations tells us that both living and dead must come to be judged. This is how each of us gets an equal opportunity to accept or reject Jesus. This is also why God chooses a nation as His people and puts them under the Law so that this people become the example of humanity's utter depravity and reliance on an eternal and good God. Only Jesus could keep the Law without sin which makes Him the ONLY human eligible to be the unblemished Pascal Lamb! For this Jesus is given authority over ALL that belongs to God. Islam through Ishmael is a covenant people of God, but they too must go through faith in Christ to live eternally in the presence. Look at the Spectrum doctrine that I presented which elevates Jew vs Gentile to Believer vs non-Believer. Islam is therefore not a satanic faith, it just does not have the full Light. They were not under the Law, so this makes them the same as any other Gentile who are not under the Law. They still get the right to choose Jesus in life or in death before Judgement. Great theology in this passage today.