Today there is so much theological meat in the Roman's passage that I do not know where to begin. Paul talk about a mystery and that mystery deals with how the Jew vs Gentile spectrum that includes ALL human is refined to Believer vs non-Believer. It is how Jesus reconciles all humanity back to the Creator upon faith, not works. Paul says that the only reason why Gentiles get a chance to be grafted in is because the natural Chosen branches were cut off due to stubbornness and disobedience. The Jew that rejects Jesus is removed from the tree (temporarily). The new Gentile convert is warned about becoming haughty and proud because of it. But they should remain thankful because Israel is still Chosen due to the faith of their patriarchs. Paul says that when all Gentiles have been collected, some of the natural branches, Israel will be grafted back to the Tree (v 23) because of the faith of the Gentiles and the original promise made to them. There is a way that those dead will get a chance to have faith; otherwise how is it possible to reject Jesus, die, and be grafted back? The death of the body is not final! Boom! Paul gives a wonderful argument about the sternness vs the kindness of God. Notice that Paul says that once the Gentiles have accepted Jesus and reside in His kindness, we need to make sure that we stay there. This is yet another blow against the false doctrine of once saved, always saved. You CAN lose your salvation, by sinning against the Light (Holy Spirit) - Matt 12. Paul also shows his passion to save as many as the Jews that he can by appealing to their envious or human nature. There is no mistake about who Paul is! Anti-semitism IS self-hatred to the Christian! This is "a" summation of Paul's argument- Gentiles, though blessed by Jewish disobedience are not superior to those (Jews) disobedient! Once again we see the leveling effect of the Gospel. Jews and Gentiles are the same ultimately! From a temporal, natural, finite perspective, this is confusing. From an eternal, spiritual, infinite perspective, this is simplistic as it is awesome! Paul knew this, which is why he uses finite human logic and arguments to explain the infinite that Love is the foundation of ALL. It is the prime principle of the infinite. Praise Him!